（二）胸廓 (B) the thorax
由12块胸椎、12对肋、1块胸骨构成。 By 12 thoracic vertebrae, 12 pairs of ribs, a sternum composition.
1． 1. 胸骨 Sternum
(1)形态分部：自上而下分为胸骨柄、胸骨体和剑突三部。 (1) Form Division: from top to bottom is divided into three sternum, sternum and xiphoid. 胸骨柄上方凹陷为颈静脉切迹，柄、体交界处形成略微向前隆凸的胸骨角。 Recessed handle above the sternum for the jugular notch, handles, body slightly forward at the junction formation eminence of the sternal angle.
(2)临床意义：胸骨角平对第二肋软骨,是记数肋的标志。 (2) Clinical significance: sternal angle flat for the second costal cartilage, is a sign of counting ribs.
2． 2. 肋：共十二对。 Rib: a total of twelve pairs.
(1)形态分部 (1) Morphological Division
前部为肋软骨，后部为肋骨，末端有肋头，内面下缘处有肋沟。 To the front of the cartilage, the rear of the ribs, the end of the first rib, the inner surface of the lower edge of the rib ditch.
(2)肋的连结 (2) connecting the ribs
1)肋的后端连结：肋的后端连于胸椎。 1) ribs backhaul: thoracic ribs attached to the rear end.
2)肋的前端连结：肋的前端连结不尽相同。 2) connecting the front ribs: Front link ribs vary. ①第一肋借肋软骨连于胸骨柄。 ① first rib by rib cartilage attached to sternum. ②第二肋借肋软骨连于胸骨角。 ② second rib by rib cartilage attached to the sternum area. ③第3~7肋借肋软骨与胸骨体相连。 ③ 3 to 7 ribs and sternum are connected by cartilage. ④第8~10肋借肋软骨依次连于上位肋软骨，形成肋弓。 ④ 8 to 10 ribs in turn is connected to the PC through the costal cartilage to form the costal arch. ⑤第11、12肋前端游离于腹肌之中，称浮肋。 ⑤ front end of the 11th and 12th ribs being separated from the abdominal muscles, called floating ribs.
肋的连结 Rib links
一肋连于胸骨柄 A rib attached to sternum 二肋对角标志明 Two diagonal rib sign out
三至七肋与体连 Even three to seven ribs and body 八至十肋成肋弓 Eight to ten ribs into Legong
十一十二称浮肋 XI XII called floating ribs 前端游离肌肉中 Free muscle in the front
3． 3. 胸廓的整体观及运动 The whole concept of the thorax and sports
胸廓呈前后略扁的圆锥形，上窄下宽。 Thorax was slightly flat around the cone, the narrow width. 肋骨间为肋间隙，由肋间肌封闭。 Intercostal space between the ribs is closed by the intercostal muscles.
(1)胸廓上口：由第一胸椎、第一肋、胸骨的颈静脉切迹围成，向前下倾斜。 (1) thoracic outlet: the first thoracic vertebra, the first rib, sternum surrounded jugular notch, tilted forward.
(2)胸廓下口：由第十二胸椎、十二肋、十一肋、肋弓、剑突围成，膈肌就是附着于胸廓下口周围的骨面。 (2) lower thoracic outlet: the twelfth thoracic vertebrae, ribs twelve, eleven ribs, rib cage, break out into a sword, the diaphragm is attached to the bone surface under the mouth around the thorax.
(3)胸廓的运动：吸气时，胸廓和肋上升。 (3) the thorax movement: breathing, chest and rib rise. 呼气时，胸廓和肋下降。 Breath, chest and rib fall.
胸廓形态、运动 Thoracic morphology, movement
胸廓形似小鸟笼 Thorax shape of small birdcage 上窄下宽扁锥形 The narrow width flat conical
上口狭小前下斜 Catchy narrow oblique ago 下口封膈分腹胸 Under the sub-abdominal diaphragm seal mouth chest
容纳保护心肝肺 Accommodate protect the heart hepatopulmonary 呼气下降吸气升 Decreased inspiratory breath l
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