二、咽 Second, the pharynx
（一）咽的位置和形态 (A) the location and shape of the pharynx
咽位于1~6颈椎前方，为一漏斗形肌性管道。 1-6 cervical pharynx located in front of a funnel-shaped muscular pipeline. 长约12cm。 About 12cm.
（二）咽的分部与沟通 (B) the pharynx and Communication Division
1． 1. 鼻咽 Nasopharynx
正对鼻后孔，并借此与鼻腔相通。 After the hole is on the nose, and to communicate with the nasal cavity. 侧壁有咽鼓管咽口通中耳。 Side wall of the middle ear through the eustachian tube pharyngeal opening.
2． 2. 口咽 Oropharyngeal
软腭与会厌平面之间，前借咽峡通口腔，在腭舌弓与腭咽弓之间的隐窝内有腭扁桃体。 Between the soft palate and epiglottis plane before take angina through the mouth, in the crypt of the tongue palate and pharyngeal arch between arch has palatine tonsil.
4． 4. 喉咽 Laryngopharynx
会厌与第六颈椎下缘之间，前对喉，借喉口与喉腔相通，下续食管。 Epiglottis and sixth cervical vertebra between the lower edge of the front of the throat, mouth and throat communicated by the throat, esophagus under continued.
咽的分部与沟通 Pharynx and Communication Division
鼻咽口咽和喉咽 Nasopharynx oropharynx and hypopharynx 鼻口喉腔相通连 Communication of muzzle throat
咽鼓管口通中耳 Middle ear through the eustachian tube opening 六颈下缘续食管 Under the six cervical margin continued esophagus
三、食管 Third, the esophagus
（一）食管形态、位置、分部 (A) the esophagus shape, location, division
为一肌性管道，长约25cm，沿脊柱前方下降，上续咽，下接胃的贲门。 For a muscular pipeline, about 25cm, along the front of the spine down on continued pharynx, then under the cardia of the stomach. 可分颈、胸、腹三部。 Separable neck, chest, abdomen three.
（二）食管的狭窄及意义 (Two) and the significance of esophageal stenosis
1． 1. 第一狭窄 The first narrow
位于食管起始处，距切牙约15cm。 Located at the beginning of the esophagus from the incisors about 15cm.
2． 2. 第二狭窄 The second narrow
位于食管与左主支气管交叉处，距切牙约25cm。 Located in the esophagus and the left main bronchus at the intersection from the incisors of about 25cm.
3． 3. 第三狭窄 Third stenosis
位于食管穿膈处，距切牙约45cm。 Located at the esophagus through the diaphragm from the incisors of about 45cm.
意义：是肿瘤好发部位和异物易滞留部位。 Meaning: tumor predilection sites and foreign residence portion easy.
食管的狭窄及意义 And significance of esophageal stricture
食管全长三处狭 Total length of three narrow esophagus 异物肿瘤最好发 Foreign body tumor best hair
首在食管起始处 First at the beginning of the esophagus 次于左支相交叉 Left inferior branch intersect
三过食管裂孔处 Three had esophageal hiatus 侧算距离到切牙 Calculate the distance to the side incisors
前俩十五二十五 Former two fifteen twenty-five 最末四十才到达 Before reaching the last forty
四、胃 Fourth, stomach
（一）胃的形态和分部 (A) the shape and division of the stomach
1． 1. 形态 Form
即两壁、两缘、两口。 Ie walls, two edges, two. 两壁即前、后两壁，两缘即大弯和小弯，两口即上口贲门、下口幽门。 That front walls, walls after two large curved edge that is curved and small, that is catchy两口cardia, pyloric under the mouth.
2． 2. 分部 Division
分四部，即贲门部、胃底、胃体和幽门部。 Four points, namely cardia, fundus, body and pylorus of the stomach. 幽门部临床也称胃窦，分幽门窦和幽门管两部。 Pyloric antrum, also known as clinical, sub pyloric antrum and pyloric two.
（二）胃的位置 (B) the location of the stomach
胃大部位于左季肋区，少部位于腹上区（剑突下）。 Gastrectomy in the left quarter rib area, located less abdominal area (xiphoid).
注：二门部 — 贲门部、幽门部。 Note: The two Department - cardia, pylorus.
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