India (INDIA)
The Republic of India

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    Full title republic of India. Is located south Asia, is situated at the south Asian subcontinent center. Northwest borders on with Pakistan, northeast and Chinese, Nepalese, the Sikkim and the Bhutanese border, east with Burma, Bangladesh is a neighbour, south with Sri Lanka, the Maldives see each other by sea, the southeast is close to Bay of Bengal, southwest near Arabic sea, south continually Indian Ocean, north pillow Himalaya Mountains.

Geography Returns to the page head

    Area 2.9747 million square kilometers. Coastline length 6,083 meters.

    North topography Gao Nadi. Entire boundary by plain and place slow earthen mound primarily. North south subordinate Himalaya Mountains the slope mountainous region, the elevation are many above 5,500 meters; Middle is Indus River, 恒河 the plain; South to Germany does the plateau primarily, its middle multi- earthen mounds hills and valleys place, the coast is the narrow plain. The main rivers have 恒河, shovel the Mapp Tela river and so on.

Climate Returns to the page head

    The majority of areas are the tropical monsoon climate. A year is three seasons: 冷季, hot season, rainy season. Year precipitation majority of areas 500 ~ 1,500 millimeters.

Resources Returns to the page head

    The mineral resource resources is rich, mainly has the alumina, the coal, the mica, the iron, the copper as well as the petroleum, the natural gas and so on. Alumina and the coal output occupies the world front row. Forest cover rate is 22%.

Political area Returns to the page head

    The national division is 22 nations and 7 centrals committee straight areas of jurisdiction.

History Returns to the page head

    For world one of four big ancient nations. Around 2000 has created the bright Indus River civilization, 322 B.C. form the unified slavery country. In 1526 established not lies the empire, became at that time one of world powerful nations. In 1600 suffered England to invade, establishes the East India company. After 1757 degenerated into the English colony. In 1947 England implemented India, the Pakistan minute governs, in the same year on August 15 announced the independence. On January 26, 1950 established the republic of India. National Day January 26.

Population Returns to the page head

    The population 1.02 billion (in 2001), in the inhabitant the Hindustan race accounts for 46%, peaceful Lu Guzu accounts for 8.6%, but also has the Bangladesh race, the horse pulls the race, the Taimier race and so on several dozens nationalities.

    Hindi language and English with are the official language.

    83% inhabitant believe in Hinduism, -odd letter Islamism, Christianity Buddhism and so on.

Economy Returns to the page head

    Is the Asia large agricultural nation, mainly produces the rough rice, the wheat, the cotton, the jute, the sugar cane and so on. The modern industry development is rapid, mainly has mining, the metallurgy, the electric power, the chemical industry, the machinery and so on.

    In 2001 GDP approximately is equal to 477.6 billion US dollars, per capital GDP 460 US dollars.

    Mainly exports the jewelry product, the leather, the chemical product, the cotton yarn and so on, the import petroleum and its the product, the jewelry raw material, the chemical fertilizer, the electromechanical device and so on. In 2001 the foreign trade total amount approximately is equal to 102.5 billion US dollars.

    The current money is the Indian rupee.

Military Returns to the page head

Military service system implementation 募兵? Service fixed number of years: The soldier 17 years, sergeant 21 ~ 28 years, preliminarily appoints the military officer (sea, air force warrant officer) 26 ~ 33 years. All levels of military officers' highest service fixed number of years age: The high-ranking military officer 60 years old, the field grade officer 55 years old, the company officer 50 years old, preliminarily appoint the military officer (sea, air force warrant officer) 50 years old.

Military rank minute 7 and so on 20 levels: Marshal 1 level (only awards branch of armed services chief staff officer in wartime which has special meritorious service), the high-ranking military officer 4 levels (general, center, major general and brigadier general), the field grade officer 3 levels (colonel, lieutenant colonel and major), the company officer 3 levels (captain, first lieutenant, second lieutenant), preliminarily will appoint the military officer or the warrant officer (level, two level, three levels), sergeant 3 levels (master sergeant, staff sergeant and corporal), soldier 3 levels (private class, private second class and basic private). Below the warrant officer the military rank, the three services slightly have the difference.

The military expenses  in 2001 the military expenses expenditure approximately are equal to 13.2 billion US dollars. In 2004 the military expenses expenditure approximately is equal to 17 billion US dollars.

Active duty army 1.175 million people.

Army  980,000 people. Arranges has 5 military regions, 11 military headquarters, 35 teachers (3 armored divisions, 4 plains infantries reorganizes teacher, 18 infantry divisions, 9 mountain divisions and 1 artillery teacher) as well as 15 independent brigade (7 armored brigades, 5 infantry brigades, 2 mountainous regions travel, 1 lands/attacks travel), 1 "the Pritt Uygur" the place missile group, 4 anti-aircraft travel and 3 工兵? The above army including 59 tank regiments (camp), 355 infantry battalions (including 25 armored infantry battalions, 8 airborne camps, 3 assault battalions), 190 artillery army corps (camp) (including 1 heavy artillery group, 2 rocket launchers groups, 50 medium artillery groups contains 11 self-propelled artillery groups, 69 field artillery groups contains 3 self-propelled artillery groups, 39 mountainous regions artillery group, 29 anti-aircraft guns groups), 2 ground-to-air missiles production brigades (each production brigade contains 3 ~ 5 missile batteries), 15 ground-to-air missiles groups. The Army aviation force arranges has 14 helicopters squadrons (6 antitank squadrons, 8 observations machine squadrons).

    The army divides 5 military regions: North the military area command headquarters are located in India to occupy Kashmir the Ukraine 达姆 普尔, governs 2 armed forces (to contain 6 infantry divisions, 2 mountain divisions and 2 independent brigade), is responsible for north the Kashmir area India and Pakistan frontier in Duan Heyin west the frontier the section defense; West military area command headquarters Chandigarh, governs 3 armed forces (to contain 1 armored division, 1 artillery teacher, 8 infantry divisions and 4 independent air defense travel), is responsible for the India and Pakistan frontier center-section plain area defense; Eastern part the military area command headquarters are located in Calcutta, governs 3 armed forces (to contain 7 mountain divisions), is responsible for the India Meng frontier area, in the Indo frontier area and India east the frontier the section (contains tin frontier) the local defense; Middle the military area command headquarters are located in Lucknow, governs 1 armed force (to contain 2 infantry divisions, 1 armored division, 1 mountain division and 3 independent brigade), is responsible for the central various nations and middle the Himalaya Mountains frontier area defense east, and holds the post of, west two war zones reserve forces; South the military area command headquarters are located in 浦那, governs 2 armed forces (to contain 3 infantry divisions, 1 artillery teacher and 6 independent brigade), is responsible for south the India and Pakistan frontier the section defense.

Main battle tank: 3,414, T - 55 approximately 700, T - 72 approximately 1,500, "victory" 1,200, "Arab League fine jade" approximately 14.
Infantry combat tank: BM ?- 1 3,501, BM ?- 2 1,000.
Armored carrier: OT - 62,/64 157.
Tows the artillery: 4,175, 75 millimeters 1,115, 105 millimeter approximately 1,350, 122 millimeter approximately 550, 130 millimeter 750, 155 millimeter 410.
Self-propelled artillery: 105 millimeters 80, 122 millimeter 150.
Multibarrel launcher: 122 millimeters 150.
Mortar: 120 millimeters 500, 160 millimeter 700.
Place missile: "Pritt Uygur" type 3 ~ 5.
Has no children the recoil artillery: 57 millimeters 500, 106 millimeter 1,000.
Anti-aircraft gun: Approximately 2,400.
Ground-to-air missile: Sum - 6 180, sum - 7 620, sum - 8B 50, sum - 9 400, sum - 3 45, sum - 16 500.
Helicopter: 199.
Vehicle personnel landing craft: 2.
Antitank guided missile: "Milan" and so on certain.

The navy 55,000 people (contain naval air force, marine corps)

    Eastern part arranges has, west, south and the far east 4 area commands, east, west 2 fleets. Arranges in addition has the submarine headquarters (in the Uygur Vishakhapatnam) and the naval air force headquarters (in Goa).

    According to the Indian Peninsula east, west, south and the Anda graceful Nepal Cobar archipelago and nearby sea area separately divide into the eastern part, west, south and the far east 4 areas naval headquarters. West the naval headquarters are located in Bombay west, gets down governs the fleet, arranges has the Indian more than half destroyer, the escort ship and the submarine, is responsible for the Arabic sea the defense, its base has Bombay, the horse 哈拉 executes Tela, 卡蒂 the Asian var, tile outstanding Raba Hu. Eastern part the naval headquarters are located in the Uygur Vishakhapatnam eastern part, gets down governs the fleet. Its base has Calcutta, the Uygur Vishakhapatnam and the Madras navy stands with 维尔 the Pakistan Hu submarine base, the area of jurisdiction for the eastern part coast and Bay of Bengal. South the naval headquarters are located in Cochin, gets down supposes the naval air force headquarters. The far east naval headquarters are located in the Andaman Islands 布菜 your port, eastern part the subordination the naval headquarters.

    Equips each kind of naval vessel 151, aircraft carrier 1, submarine 19, destroyer 6, escort ship 38, patrol and seacoast naval vessel 49, minesweeper 20, amphibious amphibious assault ship 20, each kind of support ships 28. Is constructing has nearly 20, the plan constructs 30.

The naval air force 5,000 people, the equipment have 2 attack squadrons, 6 anti-submarine warfares helicopter squadron, 3 marine reconnaissance squadrons, 1 telegraph squadron, 1 search and the rescue helicopter squadron and 2 trainer aircrafts squadrons
Marine corps arranges has 1 group (including 3 production brigades), approximately 1,200 people.

Air force 140,000 people. Equipment battle airplane 772, helicopter 170 (armed helicopter 32). Arranges has 17 attacks fighter squadron, 20 fighter squadrons, 3 attack helicopters squadron, 2 reconnaissance squadrons. 12 transport squadrons, 11 transport helicopters squadron, 1 important person special plane squadron, but also arranges some 38 sam squadron.

    Divides for the west, the north west, middle, eastern part = south 5 area commands. West the headquarters are located in Pakistan to be blue, govern 5 tactical air force center, responsibly assists Germany 普尔 (to contain capital New Delhi) by the north and occupies south Kashmir from India to pull the Jia Stan area. Southwest the air force headquarters are located in assist Germany 普尔, gets down governs 1 tactical air force center, responsibly pulls south of the Jia Stan to the ancient lucky rutter and rope 拉什 Tela and the Cooch area. Middle the air force headquarters are located in Allah bow-legged Germany, gets down governs 2 tactical air force center, is responsible for middle the entire Indian the air defense combat. West eastern part the air force headquarters are located in are prosperous, get down govern 3 tactical air force center, is responsible for the India China, India Meng and the Indo frontier area. South the air force headquarters are located in the Terry every special jade, gets down governs 1 tactical air force center, is responsible for Indian Peninsula 南端 and the Anda graceful Nepal Cobar archipelago and Larke Sha Dewei the archipelago.

Attacks the fighter aircraft: 53 Migs - 23BN, 88 "jaguar", 147 Migs - 27, 79 Migs - 21MF.
Fighter aircraft: 66 Migs - 21FL, 169 Migs - 21BIS, 26 Migs - 23MF, 64 Migs - 29, 35 "illusory image" 2000H/TH and 8 Soviet - 30MK.
Attack helicopter: 32 rice - 24.
Reconnaissance aircraft: 8 "Canberra", 6 rice - 25 and 2 rice - 25U.
Transport aircraft: 105 peaceful - 32, 45 DO - 228, 28 BAE - 748, 25 Il - 76.
Transport helicopter: 73 rice - 8, 36 rice - 17, 10 rice - 26.
Important person special plane: 2 Boeing - 737, 7 BAE - 748, 6 rice - 8.
Marine attack airplane: 6 "jaguar".
Electronic warfare airplane: 4 HS - 748.
Accelerator: 6 Il - 78.
Electronic intelligence aircraft: 6.
Maritime reconnaissance and measuring engine: 4.
Trainer aircraft: Approximately 400.
Trains the helicopter: 22.
Ground-to-air missile: Equipment sum - 2, sum - 3, sum - 5 and sum - 10 missiles certain.

The paramilitary forces India's paramilitary forces type many, the station is dispersible, and subordination different department. The accurate bureau of military affairs is regular forces' auxiliary strength, usually carries out the border defense, the coast defense patrol, the information collection and the domestic protection public security duty; The wartime deploys the regular forces to carry out the operational mission. Its establishment unit usually for army, camp, squadron (continually), platoon, class (sentry post) 5 levels. The army highest leadership is an inspector general, generally for the active duty center general officer level military officer, following all levels of military officers for active duty or the retired officers, the camp or the squadron (continually) is the basic operational unit, a camp acts according to the area of jurisdiction under the scope to govern the number different squadron (continually), the squadron continually below is 33 systems, groups the class. The India paramilitary forces equip facilely, the establishment is capable, may shoulder fast attacks with the independent mobile operational mission. At present, India paramilitary forces military strength approximately 1.09 million people: Coast guard 6,000 people, subordinate Department of Defense, the equipment have 52 each kind of naval vessel and 30 airplanes, usually is responsible for the offshore defense and the public security, the wartime turns over to the navy direction, assists the navy combat; The national security armed escort 7,400 people, the subordination cabinet secretariat, is responsible for the counter- terrorism, the member comes from the Indian three services, the central reserve police army and the frontier security force; The special security force 30 million people, are responsible for the important person safety; The central reserve police army 165,300 people, subordinate the Ministry of Interior; Nation armed police 400,000 people (including 24 camps degree of hardness reserve police), primary cognizance this nation public security duty, also may assign to other nations to carry out the task; Frontier security force 185,000 people, approximately some 150 camps; 阿萨?the rifle team 52,500 people, subordinate the Ministry of Interior, arranges has 31 camps, the primary cognizance northeast various nations public security duty, all levels of military officers are the army officers, the training are better; Special frontier army 9,000 people, subordination cabinet secretariat; The central industry security force 88,600 people, subordinate the Ministry of Interior; The national defense security guard unit 31,000 people, subordinate Department of Defense, the primary cognizance Department of Defense station security and the security guard work; Railroad security force 70,000 people.

The reserve strength India's reserve strength does not refer 脱产 the folk military, India calls self as the 1st reserve duty and the 2nd defense strength, altogether has 2.4 million people. The 1st reserve duty and the 2nd defense strength organization is loose, only must participate in short-term every year the military training. This reserve strength usually assists the police to maintain the social order and the participation emergency disaster relief, the wartime undertakes the private residence task, the supplement regular army. Its maintenance expenditure generally (central straight area of jurisdiction) shares by the central nation government and the nation according to the proportion.
The 1st reserve duty has the Indian fighting services retired soldier official to compose. Performs preparatory service the highest fixed number of years is 50 years old. When necessity, the reserve personnel may the reenlist. Under the 1st reserve duty has the military strength approximately 500,000 people, including army and air force reserve duty as well as navy wish reserve duty. The air force reserve duty divides into the anti-aircraft reserve duty and the auxiliary air force reserve duty two kinds. The army reserve duty existing 300,000 people (release from active duty performs preparatory service at least for 5 years), navy reserve duty 55,000 people, air force reserve duty 140,000 people.
The 2nd defense strength mainly is the folk military organization, the existing strength approximately 1.9 million people, including 地方?33,400 person, the national study army corps 100 ten thousand person, the hometown armed escort 472,000 person, the civil defense organization 394,000 person as well as the fire brigade (strength are unclear).

Was for stationed abroad the military strength 1,997 ~ 1998 year to accredit the Angolan 151 people, including 5 military observers; Accredits 5 military observers in Iraqi and the Kuwaiti frontier; Accredits 6 military observers in the Africa Sierra Leone; Accredits 10 military observers in Western Sahara.

Army holiday armed force festival on December 7, army day on January 15, navy day on December 4, air force festival on October 8.


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    The transportation take the railroad, the road primarily, the water transportation, the aviation as auxiliary. In 2001 the track line total length amounts to 63,000 kilometers, the road total length 3.3 million kilometers.

Traveling Returns to the page head

    Indian historical site multitudinous, mountains and rivers beautiful, the traveling resources is rich. In 2001 the foreign traveling person amounts to 2420000, the traveling receives 2.9 billion US dollars.

City Returns to the page head

    Capital New Delhi. The main city has Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, 马德 Reese and so on.

Correlation link Returns to the page head