A mathematical object which is similar to a Boolean Ring, but which uses the meet and join operators instead of the usual addition and multiplication operators. A Boolean algebra is a set of elements , , ... with Binary Operators and such that

- 1a. If and are in the set , then is in the set .
- 1b. If and are in the set , then is in the set .
- 2a. There is an element (zero) such that for every element .
- 2b. There is an element (unity) such that for every element .
- 3a.
- 3b.
- 4a.
- 4b.
- 5. For every element there is an element such that and .
- 6. There are at least two distinct elements in the set .

In more modern terms, a Boolean algebra is a Set of elements , , ... with the following properties:

- 1. has two binary operations, (Wedge) and (Vee), which satisfy the
Idempotent laws

the Commutative laws

and the Associative laws

- 2. The operations satisfy the Absorption Law

- 3. The operations are mutually distributive

- 4. contains universal bounds which satisfy

- 5. has a unary operation of complementation which obeys the laws

Huntington (1933a, b) presented the following basis for Boolean algebra,

- 1. Commutativity. .
- 2. Associativity. .
- 3. Huntington Equation. .

The Algebra defined by commutativity, associativity, and the Robbins Equation is called Robbins Algebra. Computer theorem proving demonstrated that every Robbins Algebra satisfies the second Winkler Condition, from which it follows immediately that all Robbins Algebras are Boolean.

**References**

Bell, E. T. *Men of Mathematics.* New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986.

Birkhoff, G. and Mac Lane, S. *A Survey of Modern Algebra, 3rd ed.* New York: Macmillian, p. 317, 1965.

Halmos, P. *Lectures on Boolean Algebras.* Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand, 1963.

Huntington, E. V. ``New Sets of Independent Postulates for the Algebra of Logic.'' *Trans. Amer. Math. Soc.*
**35**, 274-304, 1933a.

Huntington, E. V. ``Boolean Algebras: A Correction.'' *Trans. Amer. Math. Soc.* **35**, 557-558, 1933.

McCune, W. ``Robbins Algebras are Boolean.'' http://www-unix.mcs.anl.gov/~mccune/papers/robbins/.

© 1996-9

1999-05-26