where is the Versine and cos is the Cosine. Using a trigonometric identity, the haversine is equal to

**References**

Abramowitz, M. and Stegun, C. A. (Eds.).
*Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables, 9th printing.*
New York: Dover, p. 78, 1972.

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1999-05-25