A unitary matrix is a Matrix
for which

(1) |

(2) |

(3) |

For Real Matrices, Hermitian is the same as Orthogonal. Unitary matrices are Normal Matrices.

If
is a unitary matrix, then the Permanent

(4) |

**References**

Arfken, G. ``Hermitian Matrices, Unitary Matrices.'' §4.5 in *Mathematical Methods for Physicists, 3rd ed.*
Orlando, FL: Academic Press, pp. 209-217, 1985.

Minc, H. *Permanents.* Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1978.

Vardi, I. ``Permanents.'' §6.1 in *Computational Recreations in Mathematica.*
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, pp. 108 and 110-112, 1991.

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1999-05-26