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Examples of Fractional Calculus Computer Algebra System 例题

Content

  • Arithmetic 算术
    1. Exact_computation
    2. Complex 复数
    3. Numerical approximations
  • Algebra 代数
    1. factor
    2. expand
    3. convert
    4. inverse function
    5. inverse equation
    6. polynomial
  • Function 函数
    1. Trigonometry 三角函数
    2. Complex Function 复变函数
    3. special Function
  • Calculus 微积分
    1. Limit
    2. Derivatives
    3. Integrals
    4. Fractional calculus
  • Equation 方程
    1. inverse equation
    2. polynomial equation
    3. Algebra_equation
    4. 2D equations
    5. Diophantine equation
    6. system of equations
    7. 2D parametric equations
    8. 3D equations
    9. 3D parametric equations
    10. 4D equations
    11. congruence equation
    12. Modulus equation
    13. Probability_equation
    14. recurrence_equation
    15. functional_equation
    16. difference_equation
    17. vector_equation
    18. Inequalities
    19. differential equation
    20. fractional differential equation
    21. system of differential equations
    22. partial differental equation
    23. integral equation
    24. fractional integral equation
    25. differential integral equation
    26. test solution
  • bugs
  • Transform
    1. laplace
    2. fourer
    3. convolute
  • Discrete Math 离散数学
    1. Summation ∑
    2. Indefinite sum
    3. definite sum
    4. infinite sum
    5. Series 级数
    6. Product ∏
  • Definition 定义式
  • Numeric math 数值数学
  • Number Theory 数论
  • Probability 概率
  • Multi elements
    1. and
    2. list
  • Statistics 统计
  • Linear Algebra 线性代数
    1. vector calculus
    2. matrix
  • programming 编程
  • Graphics
  • Plot 制图
    1. Interactive plot 互动制图
    2. parametric plot, polar plot
    3. solve equation graphically
    4. area plot with integral
    5. complex plot
    6. Geometry 几何
  • plane graph 平面图
    1. plane graph 平面图 with plot2D
    2. function plot with funplot
    3. differentiate graphically with diff2D
    4. integrate graphically with integrate2D
    5. solve ODE graphically with odeplot
  • 3D graph 立体图
    1. surface in 3D with plot3D
    2. contour in 3D with contour3D
    3. wireframe in 3D with wirefram3D
    4. complex function in 3D with complex3D
    5. a line in 3D with parametric3D
    6. a column in 3D with parametric3D
    7. the 4-dimensional object (x,y,z,t) in 3D with implicit3D
  • Drawing 画画

    Do exercise and learn from example.

      Arithmetic 算术 >>

      Exact computation

    1. Fraction `1E2-1/2`
    2. Add prefix "big" to number for Big number:
      big1234567890123456789
    3. mod operation:
      input mod(3,2) for 3 mod 2

      Complex 复数

      math handbook chapter 1.1.2 complex

      Complex(1,2) number is special vector, i.e. the 2-dimentional vector, so it can be operated and plotted as vector.

    4. complex numbers in the complex plane:
      complex(1,2) = 1+2i

    5. input complex number in polar(r,theta*degree) coordinates:
      polar(1,45degree)

    6. input complex number in polar(r,theta) coordinates for degree by polard(r,degree):
      polard(1,45)

    7. input complex number in r*cis(theta*degree) format:
      2cis(45degree)
    8. Convert to complex( )

    9. in order to auto plot complex number as vector, input complex(1,-2) for 1-2i, or convert 1-2i to complex(1,-2) by
      convert(1-2i to complex) = tocomplex(1-2i)

    10. input complex number in polar:
      tocomplex(polar(1,45degree))

    11. Convert complex a+b*i to polar(r,theta) coordinates:
      convert 1-i to polar = topolar(1-i)

    12. Convert complex a+b*i to polar(r,theta*degree) coordinates:
      topolard(1-i)
    13. complex 2D plot:
      complex2D(x^x)

      more are in complex2D

    14. complex 3D plot:
      complex3D(pow(x,x))

      more are in complex function

      Numerical approximations

    15. numeric computation end with the equal sign =
      sin(pi/4)=

    16. numeric computation with the ≈ button :
      sin(pi/4)

    17. numeric computation with the ≈≈ button :
      sin(pi/4)

    18. Convert back with numeric computation n( ) :
      n(polar(2,45degree))
      n( sin(pi/4) )
      n( sin(30 degree) )
    19. `sin^((0.5))(1)` is the 0.5 order derivative of sin(x) at x=1 :
      n( sin(0.5,1) )
    20. `sin(1)^(0.5)` is the 0.5 power of sin(x) at x=1 :
      n( sin(1)^0.5 )
    21. more are in numeric math

      Algebra 代数 >>

      math handbook chapter 1 algebra

    22. simplify:
      taylor( (x^2 - 1)/(x-1) )
    23. expand:
      expand( (x-1)^3 )

    24. factorization:
      factor( x^4-1 )
    25. factorizing:
      factor( x^2+3*x+2 )
    26. tangent

    27. tangent equation at x=1
      tangent( sin(x),x=1 )

    28. tangentplot( ) show dynamic tangent line when your mouse over the curve.
      tangentplot( sin(x) )

      convert

      convert( sin(x) to exp) is the same as toexp(sin(x))
    29. convert to exp:
      toexp( cos(x) )
    30. convert to trig:
      convert exp(x) to trig
    31. convert sin(x) to exp(x):
      convert sin(x) to exp = toexp( sin(x) )

    32. Convert to exp(x):
      toexp(Gamma(2,x))
    33. inverse function

    34. input sin(x), click the inverse button
      inverse( sin(x) )
      check its result by clicking the inverse button again.
      In order to show multi-value, use the inverse equation instead function.

      inverse equation

    35. inverse equation to show multivalue if it has:
      inverse( sin(x)=y )
      check its result by clicking the inverse button again.

      polynomial

      math handbook chapter 20.5 polynomial

    36. the unit polynomial:
      Enter poly(3,x) = poly(3) for the unit polynomial with degree 3: x^3+x^2+x+1.

    37. Hermite polynomial:
      hermite(3,x) gives the Hermite polynomial while hermite(3) gives Hermite number.

    38. harmonic polynomial:
      harmonic(-3,1,x) = harmonic(-3,x)

    39. the zeta polynomial:
      zeta(-3,x)

    40. simplify:
      taylor( (x^2 - 1)/(x-1) )
    41. expand polynomial:
      expand(hermite(3,x))

    42. topoly( ) convert polynomial to polys( ) as holder of polynomial coefficients,
      convert `x^2-5*x+6` to poly = topoly( `x^2-5*x+6` )

    43. simplify polys( ) to polynomial:
      simplify( polys(1,-5,6,x) )

    44. polyroots( ) is holder of polynomial roots, topolyroot( ) convert a polynomial to polyroots.
      convert (x^2-1) to polyroot = topolyroot(x^2-1)

    45. polysolve( ) numerically solve polynomial for multi-roots:
      polysolve(x^2-1)

    46. nsolve( ) numerically solve for a single root:
      nsolve(x^2-1)

    47. solve( ) for sybmbloic and numeric roots:
      solve(x^2-1)

    48. construct polynomial from roots. activate polyroots( ) to polynomial, and reduce roots to polynomial equation = 0 by click on the simplify( ) button.
      simplify( polyroots(2,3) )

      Number

      When the variable x of polynomial is numnber, it becomes polynomial number, please see Number_Theory section.
    49. Function 函数 >>

      math handbook chapter 1 Function 函数

      Trigonometry 三角函数

    50. expand Trigonometry by expandtrig( ) :
      expandtrig( sin(x)^2 )
    51. inverse function :
      inverse( sin(x) )

    52. plot a multivalue function by the inverse equation :
      inverse( sin(x)=y )

    53. expand trig function :
      expand( sin(x)^2 )
    54. expand special function :
      expand( gamma(2,x) )
    55. factor :
      factor( sin(x)*cos(x) )

    56. Complex Function 复变函数

      math handbook chapter 10 Complex Function 复变函数
      complex2D( ) shows the real and imag curves in real domain x, and complex3D( ) shows complex function in complex domain z, for 20 graphes in one plot.

    57. complex 2D plot :
      complex2D(x^x)

      more are in complex2D

    58. complex 3D plot :
      complex3D(pow(x,x))

      more are in complex function

      special Function

      math handbook chapter 12 special Function
    59. Calculus 微积分 >>

      Limit

      math handbook chapter 4.1 limit

    60. click the lim( ) button for Limit at x->0 :
      `lim_(x->0) sin(x)/x ` = lim sin(x)/x as x->0 = lim(sin(x)/x)

    61. click the nlim( ) button for numeric limit at x->0 :
      nlim(sin(x)/x)

    62. click the limoo( ) button for Limit at x->oo :
      `lim _(x->oo) log(x)/x` = lim( log(x)/x as x->inf )
      = limoo( log(x)/x )

    63. one side limit, left or right side :
      lim(exp(-x),x,0,right)

      Derivatives

      Math Handbook chapter 5 differential calculus

    64. Differentiate
      `d/dx sin(x)` = d(sin(x))

    65. Second order derivative :
      `d^2/dx^2 sin(x)` = d(sin(x),x,2) = d(sin(x) as x order 2)

    66. sin(0.5,x) is inert holder of the 0.5 order derivative `sin^((0.5))(x)`, it can be activated by simplify( ):
      simplify( sin(0.5,x) )

    67. Derivative as x=1 :
      `d/dx | _(x->1) x^6` = d( x^6 as x->1 )

    68. Second order derivative as x=1 :
      `d^2/dx^2| _(x->1) x^6` = d(x^6 as x->1 order 2) = d(x^6, x->1, 2)

      Fractional calculus

      Fractional calculus

    69. semiderivative :
      `d^(0.5)/dx^(0.5) sin(x)` = d(sin(x),x,0.5) = d( sin(x) as x order 0.5) = semid(sin(x))

    70. input sin(0.5,x) as the 0.5 order derivative of sin(x) for
      `sin^((0.5))(x)` = `sin^((0.5))(x)` = sin(0.5,x)

    71. simplify sin(0.5,x) as the 0.5 order derivative of sin(x) :
      `sin^((0.5))(x)` = simplify(sin(0.5,x))

    72. 0.5 order derivative again :
      `d^(0.5)/dx^(0.5) d^(0.5)/dx^(0.5) sin(x)` = d(d(sin(x),x,0.5),x,0.5)

    73. Minus order derivative :
      `d^(-0.5)/dx^(-0.5) sin(x)` = d(sin(x),x,-0.5)

    74. inverse the 0.5 order derivative of sin(x) function :
      f(-1)( sin(0.5)(x) ) = inverse(sin(0.5,x))
    75. Derive the product rule :
      `d/dx (f(x)*g(x)*h(x))` = d(f(x)*g(x)*h(x))
    76. … as well as the quotient rule :
      `d/dx f(x)/g(x)` = d(f(x)/g(x))
    77. for derivatives :
      `d/dx ((sin(x)* x^2)/(1 + tan(cot(x))))` = d((sin(x)* x^2)/(1 + tan(cot(x))))
    78. Multiple ways to derive functions :
      `d/dy cot(x*y)` = d(cot(x*y) ,y)
    79. Implicit derivatives, too :
      `d/dx (y(x)^2 - 5*sin(x))` = d(y(x)^2 - 5*sin(x))
    80. the nth derivative formula :
      ` d^n/dx^n (sin(x)*exp(x)) ` = nthd(sin(x)*exp(x))
    81. differentiate graphically

      some functions cannot be differentiated or integrated symbolically, but can be semi-differentiated and integrated graphically in diff2D.

      Integrals

      Math Handbook chapter 6 integral calculus
    82. indefinite integrate : `int` sin(x) dx = integrate(sin(x))

    83. enter a function sin(x), then click the ∫ button to integrate :
      `int(cos(x)*e^x+sin(x)*e^x)\ dx` = int(cos(x)*e^x+sin(x)*e^x)
      `int tan(x)\ dx` = integrate tan(x) = int(tan(x))

    84. Exact answers for integral :
      `int (2x+3)^7` dx = int (2x+3)^7

    85. Multiple integrate :
      `int int (x + y)\ dx dy` = int( int(x+y, x),y)
      `int int exp(-x)\ dx dx` = integrate(exp(-x) as x order 2)

    86. Definite integration :
      `int _1^3` (2*x + 1) dx = int(2x+1,x,1,3) = int(2x+1 as x from 1 to 3)

    87. Improper integral :
      `int _0^(pi/2)` tan(x) dx =int(tan(x),x,0,pi/2)

    88. Infinite integral :
      `int _0^oo 1/(x^2 + 1)` dx = int(1/x^2+1),x,0,oo)

    89. Definite integration :
      `int_0^1` sin(x) dx = integrate( sin(x),x,0,1 ) = integrate sin(x) as x from 0 to 1

      integrator

      If integrate( ) cannot do, please try integrator(x) :
    90. integrator(sin(x))

    91. enter sin(x), then click the ∫ dx button to integrator

      fractional integrate

    92. semi integrate, semiint( ) :
      `int sin(x) \ dx^(1/2)` = int(sin(x),x,1/2) = int sin(x) as x order 1/2 = semiint(sin(x)) = d(sin(x),x,-1/2)

    93. indefinite semiintegrate :
      `int sin(x)\ dx^0.5` = `d^(-0.5)/dx^(-0.5) sin(x)` = int(sin(x),x,0.5) = semiint(sin(x))

    94. Definite fractional integration :
      `int_0^1` sin(x) `(dx)^0.5` = integrate( sin(x),x,0.5,0,1 ) = semiintegrate sin(x) as x from 0 to 1

      numeric computation

    95. numeric computation by click on the "~=" button :
      n( `int _0^1` sin(x) dx )

      numeric integrate

      If numeric computation ail, please try numeric integrate nintegrate( ) or nint( ) :
      nint(sin(x),x,0,1) = nint(sin(x))

      integrate graphically

      some functions cannot be differentiated or integrated symbolically, but can be semi-differentiated and integrated graphically in integrate2D.
    96. Equation 方程 >>

      Math handbook chapter 3 algebra equation. The unknown is x by default.

      inverse an equation

    97. inverse an equation to show multivalue curve.
      inverse( sin(x)=y )
      check its result by clicking the inverse button again.

      polynomial equation

    98. polyroots( ) is holder of polynomial roots, topolyroot( ) convert a polynomial to polyroots.
      convert (x^2-1) to polyroot = topolyroot(x^2-1)

    99. polysolve( ) numerically solve polynomial for multi-roots.
      polysolve(x^2-1)

    100. construct polynomial from roots. activate polyroots( ) to polynomial, and reduce roots to polynomial equation = 0 by click on the simplify( ) button.
      simplify( polyroots(2,3) )

    101. solve( ) for sybmbloic and numeric roots :
      solve(x^2-1)
      solve( x^2-5*x-6 )

    102. solve equation and inequalities, by default, equation = 0 for default unknown x if the unknown omit.
      solve( x^2+3*x+2 )
    103. Symbolic roots :
      solve( x^2 + 4*x + a )

    104. Complex roots :
      solve( x^2 + 4*x + 181 )

    105. solve equation for x.
      solve( x^2-5*x-6=0,x )

    106. numerically root :
      nsolve( x^3 + 4*x + 181 )

    107. nsolve( ) numerically solve for a single root.
      nsolve(x^2-1)

      Algebra Equation f(x)=0

      math handbook chapter 3 algebaic Equation

      solve( ) also solve other algebra equation, e.g. exp( ) equation,

    108. Solve nonlinear equations:
      solve(exp(x)+exp(-x)=4)

      2D equations f(x,y) = 0

      One 2D equation for 2 unknowns x and y, f(x,y) = 0, solved graphically by implicitplot( )
    109. solve x^2-y^2=1 graphically
      x^2-y^2-1=0

      congruence equation

      a x ≡ b (mod m)

      math handbook chapter 20.3 congruence

    110. By definition of congruence, a x ≡ b (mod m) if a x − b is divisible by m. Hence, a x ≡ b (mod m) if a x − b = m y, for some integer y. Rearranging the equation to the equivalent form of Diophantine equation a x − m y = b.
      x^2+3x+2=1*(mod 11)
      x^2+3x+2=1 mod(11)

      Modulus equation

    111. solve( ) Modulus equation for the unknown x inside the mod( ) function :
      input mod(x,2)=1 for x mod 2 = 1
      click the solve button

    112. Enter mod(x^2-5x+7,2)=1 for (x^2-5x+7) mod 2 = 1

    113. Enter mod(x^2-5x+6,2)=0 for (x^2-5x+6) mod 2 = 0

      Diophantine equation f(x,y) = 0

      math handbook chapter 20.5 polynomial

      It is that number of equation is less than number of the unknown, e.g. one equation with 2 unknowns x and y.

    114. One 2D equation f(x,y) = 0 for 2 integer solutions x and y
      solve( 3x-2y-2=0, x,y )
      solve( x^2-3x-2y-2=0, x,y )

      system of equations f(x,y)=0, g(x,y)=0

      math handbook chanpter 4.3 system of equations

    115. system of 2 equations f(x,y)=0, g(x,y)=0 for 2 unknowns x and y by default if the unknowns omit with the solve() button:
      solve( 2x+3y-1=0, 3x+2y-1=0 )

    116. system of 2 equations f(x,y)=0 and g(x,y)=0 for 2 unknowns x and y by default if the unknowns omit. On First graph it is solved graphically, where their cross is solution:
      ( 2x+3y-1=0 and 3x+2y-1=0 )

      2D parametric equations x=f(t), y=g(t)

      A system of 2 equations with a parameter t for 2 unknowns x and y, x=f(t), y=g(t), solved graphically :
    117. parametricplot( x=cos(t), y=sin(t) )
    118. parametric3D( cos(t),sin(t) )
    119. parametric2D( cos(t),sin(t) )

      2D parametric equations x=f(u,v), y=f(u,v)

      A system of 3 equations with 2 parameters u and v for 3 unknowns x and y and z, x=f(u,v), y=f(u,v) solved graphically :
    120. parametric3D( cos(u*v),sin(u*v),u*v )
    121. wireframe3D( cos(x*y),sin(x*y) )
    122. parametric3D( cos(t),sin(t) )
    123. 2D surface

      3D equations

      3D parametric equations x=f(t), y=f(t), z=f(t)

      A system of 3 equations with a parameter t for 3 unknowns x and y and z, x=f(t), y=f(t), z=f(t), solved graphically :
    124. parametric3D( t,cos(t),sin(t) )

      3D parametric equations x=f(u,v), y=f(u,v), z=f(u,v)

      A system of 3 equations with 2 parameters u and v for 3 unknowns x and y and z, x=f(u,v), y=f(u,v), z=f(u,v), solved graphically :
    125. parametric3D( u,u-v,u*v )
    126. parametric surface

      One 3D equation f(x,y,z) = 0

      One equation for 3 unknowns x and y and z, f(x,y,z) = 0, solved graphically :
    127. implicit3D( x-y-z )
    128. plot3D( x-y-z )

      4D equations

      One 4D equation with 4 variables,
    129. f(x,y,z,t) = 0, solved graphically :
      implicit3D( x-y-z-t )

    130. f(x,y,n,t) = 0, solved graphically :
      plot2D( x-y-n-t )

      Probability_equation

    131. solve( ) Probability equation for the unknown k inside the Probability function P( ),
      solve( P(x>k)=0.2, k)

      recurrence_equation

    132. rsolve( ) recurrence and functional and difference equation for y(x)
      y(x+1)=y(x)+x
      y(x+1)=y(x)+1/x

    133. fsolve( ) recurrence and functional and difference equation for f(x)
      f(x+1)=f(x)+x
      f(x+1)=f(x)+1/x

      functional_equation

    134. rsolve( ) recurrence and functional and difference equation for y(x)
      y(a+b)=y(a)*y(b)
      y(a*b)=y(a)+y(b)

    135. fsolve( ) recurrence and functional and difference equation for f(x)
      f(a+b)=f(a)*f(b)
      f(a*b)=f(a)+f(b)

      difference equation

    136. rsolve( ) recurrence and functional and difference equation for y(x)
      y(x+1)-y(x)=x
      y(x+2)-y(x+1)-y(x)=0

    137. fsolve( ) recurrence and functional and difference equation for f(x)
      f(x+1)-f(x)=x
      f(x+2)- f(x+1)-f(x)=0

      vector equation

      see vector

      Inequalities

    138. solve( ) Inequalities for x.
      solve( 2*x-1>0 )
      solve( x^2+3*x+2>0 )

      differential equation

      Math handbook chapter 13 differential equation.
      ODE( ) and dsolve( ) and lasove( ) solve ordinary differential equation (ODE) for unknown y.

    139. Solve linear ordinary differential equations:
      y'=x*y+x
      y'= 2y
      y'-y-1=0

    140. Solve nonlinear ordinary differential equations:
      (y')^2-2y^2-4y-2=0
      dsolve( y' = sin(x-y) )
      dsolve( y(1,x)=cos(x-y) )
      dsolve( ds(y)=tan(x-y) )

    141. 2000 examples of Ordinary differential equation (ODE)

      more examples in bugs

      solve graphically

      The odeplot( ) can be used to visualize individual functions, First and Second order Ordinary Differential Equation over the indicated domain. Input the right hand side of Ordinary Differential Equations, y"=f(x,y,z), where z for y', then click the checkbox. by default it is first order ODE.
    142. second order ODE
      y''=y'-y

      integral equation

      Math handbook chapter 15 integral equation.

      indefinite integral equation

    143. indefinite integral equation
      input ints(y) -2y = exp(x) for
      `int y` dx - 2y = exp(x)

      definite integral equation

    144. definite integral equation
      input integrates(y(t)/sqrt(x-t),t,0,x) = 2y for
      `int_0^x (y(t))/sqrt(x-t)` dt = 2y

      differential integral equation

    145. input ds(y)-ints(y) -y-exp(x)=0 for
      `dy/dx-int y dx -y-exp(x)=0`

      fractional differential equation

      dsolve( ) also solves fractional differential equation
    146. Solve linear equations:
      `d^0.5/dx^0.5 y = 2y`
      `d^0.5/dx^0.5 y -y - E_(0.5) (4x^0.5) = 0`
      `d^0.5/dx^0.5 y -y -exp(4x) = 0`
      `(d^0.5y)/dx^0.5=sin(x)`

    147. Solve nonlinear equations:
      `d^0.5/dx^0.5 y = y^2`

      fractional integral equation

    148. `d^-0.5/dx^-0.5 y = 2y`

      fractional differential integral equation

    149. ds(y,x,0.5)-ints(y,x,0.5) -y-exp(x)=0
      `(d^0.5y)/(dx^0.5)-int y (dx)^0.5 -y-exp(x)=0`

      complex order differential equation

    150. `(d^(1-i) y)/dx^(1-i)-2y-exp(x)=0`

      variable order differential equation

      `(d^sin(x) y)/dx^sin(x)-2y-exp(x)=0`

      system of differential equations

    151. system of 2 equations with 2 unknowns x of the 0.5 order and y of the 0.8 order with a variable t.
      dsolve( x(1,t)=x,y(1,t)=x-y )

      partial differental equation

      Math handbook chapter 14 partial differential equation.
      PDE( ) and pdsolve( ) solve partial differental equation with two variables t and x, then click the plot2D button to plot solution, pull the t slider to change the t value. click the plot3D button for 3D graph.

    152. Solve a linear equation:
      `dy/dt = dy/dx-2y`

    153. Solve a nonlinear equation:
      `dy/dt = dy/dx*y^2`
      `dy/dt = dy/dx-y^2`
      `(d^2y)/(dt^2) = 2* (d^2y)/(dx^2)-y^2-2x*y-x^2`

      fractional partial differental equation

      PDE( ) and pdsolve( ) solve fractional partial differental equation.

    154. Solve linear equations:
      `(d^0.5y)/dt^0.5 = dy/dx-2y`

    155. Solve nonlinear equations:
      `(d^0.5y)/dt^0.5 = 2* (d^0.5y)/dx^0.5*y^2`
      `(d^0.5y)/dt^0.5 = 2* (d^0.5y)/dx^0.5-y^2`
      `(d^1.5y)/(dt^1.5) + (d^1.5y)/(dx^1.5)-2y^2-4x*y-2x^2 =0`

      More examples are in Analytical Solution of Fractional Differential Equations

      test solution

      test solution for algebaic equation

      test solution for algebaic equation to the unknown x by test( solution,eq, x) or click the test button.
    156. test(1,x^2-1=0,x)
      test( -1, x^2-5*x-6 )

      test solution for differential equation

      test solution for differential equation to the unknown y by test( solution, eq ) or click the test button.
    157. test( exp(2x), `dy/dx=2y` )
    158. test( exp(4x), `(d^0.5y)/dx^0.5=2y` )

      test solution for recurrence equation to the unknown y

      by rtest( solution, eq ) or click the rtest button.

      test solution for recurrence equation to the unknown f

      by ftest( solution, eq ) or click the ftest button.
    159. bugs >>

      There are over 600 bugs in wolfram software but they are no problem in MathHand.com

      Transform >>

      Math handbook chapter 11 integral transform

      laplace transform

      First graph is in real domain, second graph is in Laplace domain by Lapalce transform laplace(x)
      Input your function, click the laplace button :
    160. laplace(sin(x))

      Fourier transform

      First graph is in real domain, second graph is in Fourier domain by Fourier transform fourier(x)
      Input your function, click the Fourier button :
    161. fourier(exp(x))
    162. sine wave
    163. Weierstrass function animation

      convolution transform

      First graph is in real domain, second graph is in convolution domain by convolution transform convolute(x) with x
      Input your function, click the convolute button :
    164. convolute(exp(x))
    165. Discrete Math 离散数学 >>

      The default index variable in discrete math is k.
    166. Input harmonic(2,x), click the defintion( ) button to show its defintion, check its result by clicking the simplify( ) button, then click the limoo( ) button for its limit as x->oo.

      Difference

    167. Δ(k^2) = difference(k^2)
      Check its result by the sum( ) button

      Summation ∑

      Indefinite sum

    168. ∑ k = sum(k)

    169. Check its result by the difference( ) button
      Δ sum(k) = difference( sum(k) )

    170. In order to auto plot, the index variable should be x :
      `sum_x x` = sum(x,x)

      definite sum

    171. Definite sum = Partial sum x from 1 to x :
      1+2+ .. +x = `sum _(k=1) ^x k` = sum(k,k,1,x)

    172. Definite sum, sum x from 1 to 5 :
      1+2+ .. +5 = ∑(x,x,1,5) = sum(x,x,1,5)
      sum(x^k,k,1,5)

      Definite sum with parameter x as upper limit

      sum(k^2, k,1, x)
    173. Check its result by the difference( ) button, and then the expand( ) button.

    174. convert to sum series definition :
      tosum( exp(x) )

    175. expand above sum series by the expand( ) button :
      expand( tosum(exp(x)) )

      Indefinite sum

    176. ∑ k

    177. sum( x^k/k!,k )

    178. partial sum of 1+2+ .. + k = ∑ k = partialsum(k)

    179. Definite sum of 1+2+ .. +5 = ∑ k

      partial sum with parameter upper limit x

    180. sum(1/k^2,k,1,x)

      infinite sum

    181. sum from 1 to oo:
      Infinite sum of 1/1^2+1/2^2+1/3^2 .. +1/k^2+... = sum( 1/k^2,k,1,oo )

    182. sum from 0 to oo:
      Infinite sum of 1/0!+1/1!+1/2! .. +1/k!+... = sum( 1/k!,k,0,oo )

    183. Infinite sum x from 0 to inf :
      1/0!+1/1!+1/2!+ .. +1/x! = sum 1/(x!) as x->oo

    184. Series 级数

    185. convert to sum series definition :
      tosum( exp(x) ) = toseries( exp(x) )
    186. check its result by clicking the simplify( ) button :
      simplify( tosum( exp(x) ))
    187. expand above sum series :
      expand( tosum(exp(x)) )
    188. compare to Taylor series :
      taylor( exp(x), x=0, 8)
    189. compare to series :
      series( exp(x) )
    190. Taylor series expansion as x=0, by default x=0.
      taylor( exp(x) as x=0 ) = taylor(exp(x))

    191. series expand not only to taylor series,
      series( exp(x) )
      but aslo to other series expansion,
      series( zeta(2,x) )

      Product ∏

    192. prod(x,x)

    193. `prod x`

      Definition 定义式 >>

    194. definition of function :
      definition( exp(x) )
    195. check its result by clicking the simplify( ) button :
      simplify( def(exp(x)) )
    196. series definition

    197. convert to series definition :
      toseries( exp(x) )
    198. check its result by clicking the simplify( ) button :
      simplify( tosum(exp(x)) )
    199. integral definition

    200. convert to integral definition :
      toint( exp(x) )
    201. check its result by clicking the simplify( ) button :
      simplify( toint(exp(x)) )
    202. Numeric math 数值数学 >>

      math handbook chapter 3.4

    203. numeric computation end with the equal sign =
      sin(pi/4)=

    204. numeric computation with the n( ) ≈≈ button:
      n( sin(30 degree) )
      n sin(30 degree)

    205. JavaScript numeric calculator with the ≈ button can calculate numeric, number theory, Probability, Statistics, matrix, solve equation.

      more example in JavaScript mathjs

    206. numeric solve equation:
      nsolve( x^2-5*x+6=0 )
      nsolve( x^2-5*x+6 )

    207. numeric integrate, by default x from 0 to 1:
      nint( x^2-5*x+6,x,0,1 )
      nint x^2-5*x+6 as x from 0 to 1
      nint sin(x)

    208. numeric computation with the funplot ≈ button:
      integrate(x=>sin(x),[1,2])

      more calculus operation in JavaScript calculus

    209. Number Theory 数论 >>

      math handbook chapter 20 Number Theory.
      When the variable x of polynomial is numnber, it becomes polynomial number :
    210. poly number:
      poly(3,2)

    211. Hermite number:
      hermite(3,2)

    212. harmonic number:
      harmonic(-3,2)
      harmonic(-3,2,4)
      harmonic(1,1,4) = harmonic(1,4) = harmonic(4)

    213. Bell number:
      n(bell(5))

    214. double factorial 6!!
    215. Calculate the 4nd prime prime(4)
    216. is prime number? isprime(12321)
    217. next prime greater than 4 nextprime(4)
    218. binomial number `((4),(2))`

    219. combination number `C_2^4`

    220. harmonic number `H_4`

    221. congruence equation:
      3x-1 = 2*(mod 2)
      x^2-3x-2 = 2mod( 2)

    222. modular equation:
      Enter mod(x-1,2)=1 for (x-1) mod 2 = 1
      Enter mod(x^2-5x+7,2)=1 for (x^2-5x+7) mod 2 = 1
      Enter mod(x^2-5x+6,2)=0 for (x^2-5x+6) mod 2 = 0

    223. Diophantine equation:
      number of equation is less than number of the unknown, e.g. one equation with 2 unkowns x and y,
      solve( 3x-2y-2=0, x,y )
      solve( x^2-3x-2y-2=0, x,y )

      more example in JavaScript mathjs

    224. Probability 概率 >>

      math handbook chapter 16 Probability

    225. probability of standard normal distribution P( ) :
      P(x<0.8)
    226. standard normal distribution function Phi(x) :
      `Phi(x)`
    227. solve Probability equation for k :
      solve(P(x>k)=0.2,k)

    228. combination(4,x)
      combination(4,2)

      more example in JavaScript mathjs

    229. Multi elements >>

      We can put multi elements together with list(), vector(), and. Most operation in them is the same as in one element, one by one. e.g. +,-,*,/, differentiation, integration, sum, etc. We count its elements with size(), as same as to count elements in function. We only talk about special properties as follows.

      and

      Its position of the element is fix so we cannot sort it. We can plot multi curves with the and. e.g.
    230. differentiate :
      d(x and x*x)

    231. integrate :
      int(x and x*x)

      list

      There are 2 types of list: [1,2,3] is numeric list in JavaScript, and the list(1,2,3) function is symbolic list in mathHand. The symbolic list element can be symbol, formula and function. We can sort list with
    232. mathHand calculator on the = button :
      sort(list(1,2,3))

    233. JavaScript calculator on the ≈ button :
      [1,2,3].sort()

      more example in JavaScript mathjs

      Statistics 统计

      math handbook chapter 16 Statistics

    234. sort(list( )), add numbers together by total(list()), max(list()), min(list()), size(list()) with mathHand calculator on the = button. e.g.
      total(list(1,2,3))

    235. with JavaScript numeric calculator on the ≈ button :
      sum([1,2])

      more example in JavaScript mathjs

      Linear Algebra 线性代数 >>

      vector

      math handbook chapter 8 vector

      It has direction. the position of the element is fix so we cannot sort it. numeric vector is number with direction. the system auto plot the 2-dimentional vector. two vector( ) in the same dimention can be operated by +, -, *, /, and ^, the result can be checked by its reverse operation.

      vector equation

    236. solve vector(1,2)+x=vector(2,4) is as same as x=vector(2,4)-vector(1,2)
    237. solve 2x-vector(2,4)=0 is as same as x=vector(2,4)/2
    238. solve 2/x-vector(2,4)=0 is as same as x=2/vector(2,4)
    239. solve vector(1,2)*x-vector(2,4)=0 is as same as x=vector(2,4)/vector(1,2)
    240. solve vector(1,2)*x-20=0 is as same as x=20/vector(1,2)
    241. solve vector(2,3)*x+vector(3,2)*y=vector(1,1),x,y is as same as solve(-1+2*x+3*y=0,-1+3*x+2*y=0)

      vector calculus

    242. differentiate vector(x,x) :
      d(vector(x,x))

    243. differentiate sin(vector(x,x)) :
      d(sin(vector(x,x)))

      Matrix 复数矩阵

      math handbook chapter 4 matrix

      Complex matrix [[1,2],[3,4]] can be operated by +,-,*,/,^,

    244. with matrix calculator 复数矩阵计算器
    245. with JavaScript numeric calculator

      more example in JavaScript mathjs

      programming 编程 >>

      There are many coding :
    246. math coding 数学编程
    247. HTML + JavaScript coding 网页编程
    248. cloud computing = web address coding 云计算 = 网址编程 = 网址计算器

      Graphics >>

    249. graphics
    250. Classification by plot function 按制图函数分类
    251. Classification by appliaction 按应用分类

      Plot 制图 >>

    252. plane curve 2D
    253. surface 2D

      3D graph 立体图 plot 3D >>

    254. space curve 3D
    255. surface 3D
    256. surface 4D

      Drawing 画画 >>

    257. drawing
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