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 Transnational Issues

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007

Map of Macedonia

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Macedonia Top of Page
Definition Field Listing
Macedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991, but Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols delayed international recognition, which occurred under the provisional designation of the "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia." In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations. The United States recognized Macedonia under its constitutional name in 2004 and negotiations continue between Greece and Macedonia to resolve the name issue, although little progress has been made. Some ethnic Albanians, angered by perceived political and economic inequities, launched an insurgency in 2001 that eventually won the support of the majority of Macedonia's Albanian population and led to the internationally-brokered Framework Agreement, which ended the fighting by establishing a mutually beneficial set of new laws for both Albanians and the Macedonian majority. The undetermined status of neighboring Kosovo, implementation of the Framework Agreement, and a weak economy continue to be challenges for Macedonia.
   Geography    Macedonia Top of Page
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Europe, north of Greece
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
41 50 N, 22 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 25,333 sq km
land: 24,856 sq km
water: 477 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than Vermont
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 766 km
border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 246 km, Serbia 221 km
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Definition Field Listing
warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
Definition Field Listing
mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 22.01%
permanent crops: 1.79%
other: 76.2% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
550 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
high seismic risks
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air pollution from metallurgical plants
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
   People    Macedonia Top of Page
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,050,554 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 20.1% (male 213,486/female 199,127)
15-64 years: 68.9% (male 711,853/female 701,042)
65 years and over: 11% (male 98,618/female 126,428) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 34.1 years
male: 33.2 years
female: 35.1 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.26% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12.02 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.77 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 9.81 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.94 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 73.97 years
male: 71.51 years
female: 76.62 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.57 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 200 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 100 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Macedonian(s)
adjective: Macedonian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.9%, Roma 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.2% (2002 census)
Definition Field Listing
Macedonian Orthodox 64.7%, other Christian 0.37%, Muslim 33.3%, other and unspecified 1.63% (2002 census)
Definition Field Listing
Macedonian 66.5%, Albanian 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Roma 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other 1.8% (2002 census)
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.1%
male: 98.2%
female: 94.1% (2002 est.)
   Government    Macedonia Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Macedonia
conventional short form: Macedonia
local long form: Republika Makedonija
local short form: Makedonija
note: the provisional designation used by the UN, EU, and NATO is Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)
former: People's Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary democracy
Definition Field Listing
name: Skopje
geographic coordinates: 41 59 N, 21 26 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
85 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Aerodrom (Skopje), Aracinovo, Berovo, Bitola, Bogdanci, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Butel (Skopje), Cair (Skopje), Caska, Centar (Skopje), Centar Zupa, Cesinovo, Cucer-Sandevo, Debar, Debartsa, Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dojran, Dolneni, Drugovo, Gazi Baba (Skopje), Gevgelija, Gjorce Petrov (Skopje), Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Jegunovce, Karbinci, Karpos (Skopje), Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kisela Voda (Skopje), Kocani, Konce, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovo i Rastusa, Mogila, Negotino, Novaci, Novo Selo, Ohrid, Oslomej, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Saraj (Skopje), Skopje, Sopiste, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Suto Orizari (Skopje), Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vranestica, Vrapciste, Zajas, Zelenikovo, Zelino, Zrnovci
note: the ten municipalities followed by Skopje in parentheses collectively constitute "greater Skopje"
Definition Field Listing
8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsing independence from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Uprising Day, 2 August (1903); note - also known as Saint Elijah's Day and Ilinden
Definition Field Listing
adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991; amended November 2001 by a series of new constitutional amendments strengthening minority rights and in 2005 with amendments related to the judiciary
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 12 May 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister Nikola GRUEVSKI (since 28 August 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO/DPMNE, NSDP, PDSh/DPA, and several small parties
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); two-round election last held 14 April and 28 April 2004 (next to be held by April 2009); prime minister elected by the Assembly following legislative elections
election results: Branko CRVENKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Branko CRVENKOVSKI 62.7%, Sasko KEDEV 37.3%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Assembly or Sobranie (120 seats - members elected by popular vote from party lists based on the percentage of the overall vote the parties gain in each of six electoral districts; all serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 5 July 2006 (next to be held by July 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - VMRO-DPMNE 36%, SDSM 227%, BDI/DUI 14%, PDSh/DPA 9%, NSDP 6%, VMRO-Narodna 5%; seats by party - VMRO-DPMNE 45, SDSM 32, BDI/DUI 17, PDSh/DPA 11, NSDP 7, VMRO-Narodna 6, other 2
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Constitutional Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Republican Judicial Council - the Assembly appoints the judges
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Democratic Alliance [Pavle TRAJANOV]; Democratic Alternative or DA [Vasil TUPURKOVSKI]; Democratic League of the Bosniaks [Rafet MUMINOVIC]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh/DPA [Arben XHAFERI]; Democratic Party of Serbs [Ivan STOILJKOVIC]; Democratic Party of Turks [Kenan HASIPI]; Democratic Renewal of Macedonia [Liljana POPOVSKA]; Democratic Union of Vlachs for Macedonia [Mitko KOSTOV]; Democratic Union for Integration or BDI/DUI [Ali AHMETI]; Internal Macedonia Revolutionary Organization-Agrarian [Marjam GJORCEV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Nikola GRUEVSKI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Macedonian [Boris STOJMENOV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-People's Party or VMRO-Narodna [Vesna JANEVSKA]; League for Democracy [Gjorgi MARJANOVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Risto PENOV]; Liberal Party [Stojan ANDOV]; National Alternative [Harun ALIU]; National Democratic Party-New Democratic Forces or PDK-FRO [Hysni SHAQIR]; National Farmers' Party [Vejljo TANTAROV]; New Social Democratic Party or NSDP [Tito PETKOVSKI]; Party for Democratic Future [Alajdin DEMIRI]; Party for Democratic Prosperity or PPD/PDP [Abduljhadi VEJSELI]; Social Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM [Radmila SEKERINSKA]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV-ZINGO]; United Party for Emancipation or OPE [Nezdet MUSTAFA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Civic Movement of Macedonia [Gordana SILJANOVSKA]; World Macedonian Congress [Todor PETROV]; Federation of Trade Unions [Bahri SHABANI]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Ljupco JORDANOVSKI
chancery: 2129 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-0501
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2131
consulate(s) general: Southfield (Michigan)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Gillian A. MILOVANOVIC
embassy: Bul. Ilindenska bb, 1000 Skopje
mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, US Department of State, 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
telephone: [389] 2 311-6180
FAX: [389] 2 311-7103
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
a yellow sun with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field
   Economy    Macedonia Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
At independence in September 1991, Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics, producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services. The collapse of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from the central government and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure, UN sanctions on the downsized Yugoslavia, and a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about the country's constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. GDP subsequently rose each year through 2000. However, the leadership's commitment to economic reform, free trade, and regional integration was undermined by the ethnic Albanian insurgency of 2001. The economy shrank 4.5% because of decreased trade, intermittent border closures, increased deficit spending on security needs, and investor uncertainty. Growth barely recovered in 2002 to 0.9%, then averaged 4% per year during 2003-06. Macedonia has maintained macroeconomic stability with low inflation, but it has lagged the region in attracting foreign investment and job growth has been anemic. Macedonia has an extensive grey market, estimated to be more than 20 percent of GDP, that falls outside official statistics.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$16.91 billion
note: Macedonia has a large informal sector (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$5.649 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$8,200 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 13%
industry: 27.7%
services: 59.3% (2006 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
880,000 (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
35% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
29.6% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
28.2 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3% (2006 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18.8% of GDP (2006 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $2.113 billion
expenditures: $2.149 billion; including capital expenditures of $114 million (2006 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
27.5% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
grapes, wine, tobacco, vegetables; milk, eggs
Definition Field Listing
food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.5% (2006 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.271 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.933 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
1.662 billion kWh (2005)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
100 million cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
100 million cu m (2004 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-167 million (2006 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.341 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
food, beverages, tobacco; miscellaneous manufactures, iron and steel
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Serbia and Montenegro 22.5%, Germany 17.8%, Greece 15.3%, Italy 8.3% (2005)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.631 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, automobiles, chemicals, fuels, food products
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Russia 13.2%, Germany 10.4%, Greece 9.2%, Serbia and Montenegro 8.2%, Bulgaria 7.3%, Italy 6% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.845 billion (2006 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.138 billion (2006 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$250 million (2003 est.)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Macedonian denar (MKD)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Macedonian denars per US dollar - 48.9962 (2006), 48.92 (2005), 49.41 (2004), 54.322 (2003), 64.35 (2002)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Macedonia Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
533,200 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.261 million (2005)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: NA
domestic: NA
international: country code - 389
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 29, FM 20, shortwave 0 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
31 (plus 166 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,716 (2006)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
392,671 (2005)
   Transportation    Macedonia Top of Page
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
17 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 8 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 4 (2006)
Definition Field Listing
gas 268 km; oil 120 km (2006)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 699 km
standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (233 km electrified) (2005)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 8,684 km
paved: 5,540 km
unpaved: 3,144 km (1999)
   Military    Macedonia Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army of the Republic of Macedonia (ARM): Joint Operational Command, with subordinate Air Wing (Makedonsko Voeno Vozduhoplovstvo, MVV), Special Force Command (2006)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
conscription to be phased out by 2007; current tour of conscript duty is six months; 18 years of age for voluntary military service (2005)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 498,259
females age 18-49: 481,317 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 411,156
females age 18-49: 397,839 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 16,686
females age 18-49: 15,664 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6% (FY01/02 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Macedonia Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
ethnic Albanians in Kosovo object to demarcation of the boundary with Macedonia in accordance with the 2000 Macedonia-Serbia and Montenegro delimitation agreement; Greece continues to reject the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
IDPs: 2,678 (ethnic conflict in 2001) (2005)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; although not a financial center and most criminal activity is thought to be domestic, money laundering is a problem due to a mostly cash-based economy and weak enforcement (no arrests or prosecutions for money laundering to date)

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007

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