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The fourth chapter
respiratory system

The first section respiratory tract

The respiratory tract including the nose, swallows, the throat, the trachea, the main bronchial tube. Under clinical general the nose, swallows, the throat to be called the upper respiratory tract, the trachea, the host bronchial tube is called the respiratory tract.

First, nose

(one) outside nose 

Outside the nose assumes the sparganium stoloniferum cone-shape, take the bone and the cartilage as the support, outside becomes by the skin. The primary structure includes: Nose back, nose root, tip of the nose, wing of the nose, nostril and so on.

(two) nasal cavity 

The nasal cavity is take the bone and the cartilage as the support, the inside lining mucous membrane and the skin becomes. The first hole passes the outside before the nose, after latter borrows the nose, Kong Tongyan. About middle is separated by the nose in divides into two. Each side divides the nose vestibule and the inherent nasal cavity. Outside the inherent nasal cavity on the sidewall has the upper, middle and lower three nose armor, underneath three nose armor respectively be upper, middle and lower three nasal passages. Before the next nasal passage, the share has the ductus nasolacrimalis aperture. The nasal cavity mucous membrane district is:

1. smells the area

Upside distributes separates the mucous membrane on nose armor and the nose, slightly assumes the buff color.

2. regio respiratoria:

Smells outside the area the mucous membrane, assumes the light red. Before and is located in the nose to separate, the lower part mucous membrane, the blood vessel is rich, said that easy to bleed the area.

Nasal cavity mucous membrane

On nose armor, on diaphragm    Smells the area mucous membrane slightly light yellow

The regio respiratoria, occupies big    The mucous edema is not unobstructed

Before the diaphragm, under easy to bleed    The attention protection not damages

(three) paranasal sinus 

The paranasal sinus constitutes by the osseous paranasal sinus inside lining mucous membrane.

1. upper jaw Dou

Located at the maxilla, opens the mouth in the nasal passage.

2. frontal sinus

Located at the frontal bone, opens the mouth in the nasal passage.

3. sinus ethmoidalis

Before, during and after located at the ethmoid bone, divides three crowds, first, group aperture in the nasal passage, latter group aperture on nasal passage.

4. sinus sphenoidalis

Located at the sphenoid bone, opens the mouth in the recessus spheno-ethmoidalis.

 Paranasal sinus aperture spot

The tear-duct opens the mouth in most under    Nasal mucus tear

Middle course frontal sinus upper jaw Dou    Before the sinus ethmoidalis, not throws down

After the sinus ethmoidalis, on group nasal passage    Recessus spheno-ethmoidalis only then it


Second, throat

(one) position 

The jugal center the neck front part, 5~6 cervical vertebra altitudes, on Lian Shegu, gets down continues the trachea.

(two) structure

The throat is take the cartilage as a support, attaches by the throat muscle, the inside lining mucous membrane becomes.

1. laryngeal cartilage

Mainly has the thyroid cartilage, the cricoid cartilage, the arytenoid cartilage, the epiglottal cartilage. The thyroid cartilage taking advantage of armor shape tongue periosteum Lian Yushe the bone, gets down by the cricoid cartilage contracts the organization membrane taking advantage of the knot continually in the cartilago trachealis. Between laryngeal cartilage shape Cheng Huan armor, link scoop two groups of joints.

2. throat muscle

Two groups, affect Yu Huanjia, the link scoop joint separately, a group may intense or relaxes the vocal cord, a group expands or the reduction fissure of glottis.


Throat's structure

Armor shape ring-like scoop epiglottis    Cartilage support ligament company

Surrounds the armor link scoop to be double-hinged    Two group of throat myo- functions entire

Expanded reduction fissure of glottis    The vocal cord loose and tight it also pulls

3. laryngeal cavity

(1) laryngeal cavity structure

1) vestibule bi: Two bi are the vestibule cracks.

2) sound bi: Two bi are the fissures of glottis. Is the narrowest spot.

(2) branch

1) vestibulum laryngis: Is located at vestibule crack above laryngeal cavity, with swallows after the throat opening is interlinked, is spacious.

2) throat middle cavity: Is located at between the vestibule crack and the fissure of glottis the laryngeal cavity, is the laryngeal cavity three narrowest spots.

3) under glottis cavity: Located at fissure of glottis below. Under its mucous membrane the organization is loose, when inflammation easy to have dropsy to create the acute laryngemphraxis.


Third, trachea

(one) position 

Trachea before the neck center, front esophagus. Continues in the sixth cervical vertebra body lower limb plane meets Yu Hou the cricoid cartilage.

(two) constitutes 

The trachea is “C” the body and spirit tube cartilage link contracts the organization and the smooth muscle by 16~20 taking advantage of the knot links becomes.

(three) branch 

The trachea cuts the mark take breastbone's neck vein as to divide into the pate and the chest.

1. trachea pate

front 2~4 cartilago trachealis link has the thyroid gland canyon, the clinical tracheotomy often chooses 3~4 or 4~5 cartilago trachealis link place.

2. chest

In the angulus sterni plane branch is the left and right main bronchial tube.

Trachea constitution, branch

C body and spirit tube cartilage link    Six neck lower limbs continue Yu Huan

About chest angle plane minute    The entire journey is divided the neck chest section

Neck Duan Qianyou thyroid gland    The incision needs to elect five to three


Fourth, main bronchial tube

(one) morphological property 

Left host bronchial tube tall and slender, near level. The right host bronchial tube stubby, nearly is vertical.

(two) significance 

The trachea foreign matter crashes enters the right main bronchial tube.

About main bronchial tube characteristic, significance

The bronchial tube, divides nearby two    Left tall and slender right stubby