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The fifth chapter
uninary system


The uninary system by the kidney, the ureter, the urinary bladder, the urethra constitutes, is the important excretory organ.

The first section kidney

First, kidney's shape and position

(one) shape 

The kidney is the garnet essence reproductive organ, about each one. Its shape may induce into the high and low both sides, around both sides, in the flank two reasons. The primary structure includes:

1. kidney gate

Skips hollow middle located at kidney's, is difference and so on renal artery, kidney vein, renal pelvis, nerve, lymph vessel spots.

The renal artery, the kidney vein, the renal pelvis three in the kidney gate's position relations are:

(1) is in turn from the top downward: Renal artery, kidney vein, renal pelvis.

(2) before after is in turn: Kidney vein, renal artery, renal pelvis.

The association kidney vein, the renal artery, the renal pelvis three position relations with the tip of the nose, the eye socket, throat's position relations are exactly similar. But mnemonic as follows:

Vein nose point

Artery eye circle

Renal pelvis throat eye son

2. kidney peduncle

Is comes in and goes out the kidney gate all structure general name.

3. sinus renalis

Continues the cavity crack which by the kidney gate to the kidney essence in hollow forms. Accommodation kidney small, kidney big, renal pelvis and kidney's blood vessel and so on.

(two) position 

The kidney located at the retroperitoneal, the spinal column both sides, is outside the peritoneum the position organ. Left kidney compared to right kidney high half centrum. About kidney position comparison like table 5-1.

Kidney area: Is the kidney gate body surface projection, in sets upright outside the keel muscle to skip with in the 12th rib included angle, approximately puts down to the 1st lumbar vertebra body. Certain kidney diseases may present the tenderness in this area or knock on strike the pain. 

Table 5-1 kidney's positions



Upper extreme

Lower extremity

The 12th rib  

Left kidney

12th thoracic vertebra upper limb

3rd lumbar vertebra upper limb

Slanting share

Right kidney

12th thoracic vertebra lower limb

3rd lumbar vertebra lower limb

 Slanting above share


Second, kidney's button

Kidney's button from inside to outside in turn is the textile fiber pouch, the fat pouch, the fascia renalis. The button and the kidney peduncle, periphery the organ and the intra-abdominal pressure and so on play fixed and the protective function together to the kidney.

(one) textile fiber pouch

Resembles the shirt to cling kidney's surface generally, is thin and is tenacious, is normal when links loosely with the kidney, easy to separate.

(two) fat pouch

Resembles the cotton-wadded jacket to wrap in textile fiber pouch's outside generally, constitutes by the Fatty tissue, is thick, is when the clinical scrotum seal the medicine pours into the spot.

(three) fascia renalis

Located at the most outer layer, divides before and after two to wrap in the kidney and adrenal gland's periphery. Quite resembles puts on the outside windproof coat.

Kidney's button and attachment system association

Textile fiber shirt fat lined jacket    Most outside fascia windproof coat cover

Button kidney peduncle intra-abdominal pressure    The neighboring organ guarantees


Third, kidney's structure

(one) kidney cerebral cortex 

Located at the shallow layer, assumes the sorrel. The cerebral cortex enters in the medullary substance the part to be called the renal columns.

(two) kidney medullary substance 

Located at the cerebral cortex deep surface, constitutes by more than ten malpighian pyramids.

Malpighian pyramids: The cone, the acme obtuse circle said that the kidney nipple and enters in kidney small. 2~3 kidney small synthesize one kidney big, 2~3 kidney big synthesize the renal pelvis. The renal pelvis assumes the funnel shape, after leaving the kidney gate, (see above divides and hyphenates a word at the end for the ureter chart).

Kidney's structure

Cerebral cortex table tint brown madder    In renal columns thorough medullary substance

The medullary substance is deep is divided    Ten number cones altogether compose

The state-of-art nipple enters small    The big renal pelvis divides and hyphenates a word at the end