The fifth chapter
The uninary system by the kidney, the ureter, the urinary bladder, the urethra constitutes, is the important excretory organ.
The first section kidney
First, kidney's shape and position
The kidney is the garnet essence reproductive organ, about each one. Its shape may induce into the high and low both sides, around both sides, in the flank two reasons. The primary structure includes:
1. kidney gate
Skips hollow middle located at kidney's, is difference and so on renal artery, kidney vein, renal pelvis, nerve, lymph vessel spots.
The renal artery, the kidney vein, the renal pelvis three in the kidney gate's position relations are:
(1) is in turn from the top downward: Renal artery, kidney vein, renal pelvis.
(2) before after is in turn: Kidney vein, renal artery, renal pelvis.
The association kidney vein, the renal artery, the renal pelvis three position relations with the tip of the nose, the eye socket, throat's position relations are exactly similar. But mnemonic as follows:
Vein nose point
Artery eye circle
Renal pelvis throat eye son
2. kidney peduncle
Is comes in and goes out the kidney gate all structure general name.
3. sinus renalis
Continues the cavity crack which by the kidney gate to the kidney essence in hollow forms. Accommodation kidney small, kidney big, renal pelvis and kidney's blood vessel and so on.
The kidney located at the retroperitoneal, the spinal column both sides, is outside the peritoneum the position organ. Left kidney compared to right kidney high half centrum. About kidney position comparison like table 5-1.
Kidney area: Is the kidney gate body surface projection, in sets upright outside the keel muscle to skip with in the 12th rib included angle, approximately puts down to the 1st lumbar vertebra body. Certain kidney diseases may present the tenderness in this area or knock on strike the pain.
Table 5-1 kidney's positions
The 12th rib
12th thoracic vertebra upper limb
3rd lumbar vertebra upper limb
12th thoracic vertebra lower limb
3rd lumbar vertebra lower limb
Slanting above share
Second, kidney's button
Kidney's button from inside to outside in turn is the textile fiber pouch, the fat pouch, the fascia renalis. The button and the kidney peduncle, periphery the organ and the intra-abdominal pressure and so on play fixed and the protective function together to the kidney.
(one) textile fiber pouch
Resembles the shirt to cling kidney's surface generally, is thin and is tenacious, is normal when links loosely with the kidney, easy to separate.
(two) fat pouch
Resembles the cotton-wadded jacket to wrap in textile fiber pouch's outside generally, constitutes by the Fatty tissue, is thick, is when the clinical scrotum seal the medicine pours into the spot.
(three) fascia renalis
Located at the most outer layer, divides before and after two to wrap in the kidney and adrenal gland's periphery. Quite resembles puts on the outside windproof coat.
Kidney's button and attachment system association
Textile fiber shirt fat lined jacket Most outside fascia windproof coat cover
Button kidney peduncle intra-abdominal pressure The neighboring organ guarantees
Third, kidney's structure
(one) kidney cerebral cortex
Located at the shallow layer, assumes the sorrel. The cerebral cortex enters in the medullary substance the part to be called the renal columns.
(two) kidney medullary substance
Located at the cerebral cortex deep surface, constitutes by more than ten malpighian pyramids.
Malpighian pyramids: The cone, the acme obtuse circle said that the kidney nipple and enters in kidney small. 2~3 kidney small synthesize one kidney big, 2~3 kidney big synthesize the renal pelvis. The renal pelvis assumes the funnel shape, after leaving the kidney gate, (see above divides and hyphenates a word at the end for the ureter chart).
Cerebral cortex table tint brown madder In renal columns thorough medullary substance
The medullary substance is deep is divided Ten number cones altogether compose
The state-of-art nipple enters small The big renal pelvis divides and hyphenates a word at the end