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An object or drawing which appears to have properties which are physically impossible, deceptive, or counterintuitive.

See also Benham's Wheel, Freemish Crate, Goblet Illusion, Hermann Grid Illusion, Hermann-Hering Illusion, Hyzer's Illusion, Impossible Figure, Irradiation Illusion, Kanizsa Triangle, Müller-Lyer Illusion, Necker Cube, Orbison's Illusion, Parallelogram Illusion, Penrose Stairway, Poggendorff Illusion, Ponzo's Illusion, Rabbit-Duck Illusion, Tribar, Tribox, Vertical-Horizontal Illusion, Young Girl-Old Woman Illusion, Zollner's Illusion


Ausbourne, B. ``A Sensory Adventure.''

Ausbourne, B. ``Optical Illusions: A Collection.''

Ernst, B. Optical Illusions. New York: Taschen, 1996.

Fineman, M. The Nature of Visual Illusion. New York: Dover, 1996.

Gardner, M. ``Optical Illusions.'' Ch. 1 in Mathematical Circus: More Puzzles, Games, Paradoxes and Other Mathematical Entertainments from Scientific American. New York: Knopf, 1979.

Gregory, R. L. Eye and Brain, 5th ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997.

``Illusions: Central Station.''

Luckiesh, M. Visual Illusions: Their Causes, Characteristics, and Applications. New York: Dover, 1965.

Pappas, T. ``History of Optical Illusions.'' The Joy of Mathematics. San Carlos, CA: Wide World Publ./Tetra, pp. 172-173, 1989.

Tolansky, S. Optical Illusions. New York: Pergamon Press, 1964.

© 1996-9 Eric W. Weisstein