The set of all Rational and Irrational numbers is called the real numbers, or simply the ``reals,'' and denoted . The set of real numbers is also called the Continuum, denoted .

The real numbers can be extended with the addition of the Imaginary Number *i*, equal to . Numbers
of the form , where and are both real, are then called Complex Numbers. Another
extension which includes both the real numbers and the infinite Ordinal Numbers of
Georg Cantor is the Surreal Numbers.

Pick two real numbers and at random in with a Uniform Distribution. What is the Probability that , where denotes Nint, the nearest Integer to , is Even? The answer may be found as follows (Putnam Exam).

(1) |

(2) |

Plouffe's ``Inverse Symbolic Calculator'' includes a huge database of 54 million real numbers which are algebraically related to fundamental mathematical constants and functions.

**References**

Plouffe, S. ``Inverse Symbolic Calculator.'' http://www.cecm.sfu.ca/projects/ISC/.

Plouffe, S. ``Plouffe's Inverter.'' http://www.lacim.uqam.ca/pi/.

Putnam Exam. Problem B-3 in the 54th Putnam Exam.

© 1996-9

1999-05-25