The Angle obtained by drawing the Auxiliary Circle of an Ellipse with center and Focus , and
drawing a Line Perpendicular to the Semimajor Axis and intersecting it at . The Angle is
then defined as illustrated above. Then for an Ellipse with Eccentricity ,

(1) |

(2) |

(3) |

(4) |

(5) |

(6) |

(7) |

(8) |

(9) |

(10) |

**References**

Danby, J. M. *Fundamentals of Celestial Mechanics, 2nd ed., rev. ed.* Richmond, VA: Willmann-Bell, 1988.

Finch, S. ``Favorite Mathematical Constants.'' http://www.mathsoft.com/asolve/constant/lpc/lpc.html

© 1996-9

1999-05-25