## Partition Function P

gives the number of ways of writing the Integer as a sum of Positive Integers without regard to order. For example, since 4 can be written

 (1)

so . satisfies
 (2)

(Honsberger 1991). The values of for , 2, ..., are 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 15, 22, 30, 42, ... (Sloane's A000041). The following table gives the value of for selected small .

 50 204226 100 190569292 200 3972999029388 300 9253082936723602 400 6727090051741041926 500 2300165032574323995027 600 458004788008144308553622 700 60378285202834474611028659 800 5733052172321422504456911979 900 415873681190459054784114365430 1000 24061467864032622473692149727991

for which is Prime are 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 13, 36, 77, 132, 157, 168, 186, ... (Sloane's A046063). Numbers which cannot be written as a Product of are 13, 17, 19, 23, 26, 29, 31, 34, 37, 38, 39, ... (Sloane's A046064), corresponding to numbers of nonisomorphic Abelian Groups which are not possible for any group order.

When explicitly listing the partitions of a number , the simplest form is the so-called natural representation which simply gives the sequence of numbers in the representation (e.g., (2, 1, 1) for the number ). The multiplicity representation instead gives the number of times each number occurs together with that number (e.g., (2, 1), (1, 2) for ). The Ferrers Diagram is a pictorial representation of a partition.

Euler invented a Generating Function which gives rise to a Power Series in ,

 (3)

A Recurrence Relation is
 (4)

where is the Divisor Function (Berndt 1994, p. 108). Euler also showed that, for

 (5) (6)

where the exponents are generalized Pentagonal Numbers 0, 1, 2, 5, 7, 12, 15, 22, 26, 35, ... (Sloane's A001318) and the sign of the th term (counting 0 as the 0th term) is (with the Floor Function), the partition numbers are given by the Generating Function
 (7)

MacMahon obtained the beautiful Recurrence Relation

 (8)

where the sum is over generalized Pentagonal Numbers and the sign of the th term is , as above.

In 1916-1917, Hardy and Ramanujan used the Circle Method and elliptic Modular Functions to obtain the approximate solution

 (9)

Rademacher (1937) subsequently obtained an exact series solution which yields the Hardy-Ramanujan Formula (9) as the first term:
 (10)

where
 (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16)

is the Floor Function, and runs through the Integers less than and Relatively Prime to (when , ). The remainder after terms is
 (17)

where and are fixed constants.

With as defined above, Ramanujan also showed that

 (18)

Ramanujan also found numerous Congruences such as
 (19)

 (20)

 (21)

Ramanujan's Identity gives the first of these.

Let be the number of partitions of containing Odd numbers only and be the number of partitions of without duplication, then
 (22)
as discovered by Euler (Honsberger 1985). The first few values of are 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, ... (Sloane's A000009).

Let be the number of partitions of Even numbers only, and let () be the number of partitions in which the parts are all Even (Odd) and all different. The first few values of are 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, ... (Sloane's A000700). Some additional Generating Functions are given by Honsberger (1985, pp. 241-242)

 (23) (24) (25) (26) (27) (28)
Some additional interesting theorems following from these (Honsberger 1985, pp. 64-68 and 143-146) are:

1. The number of partitions of in which no Even part is repeated is the same as the number of partitions of in which no part occurs more than three times and also the same as the number of partitions in which no part is divisible by four.

2. The number of partitions of in which no part occurs more often than times is the same as the number of partitions in which no term is a multiple of .

3. The number of partitions of in which each part appears either 2, 3, or 5 times is the same as the number of partitions in which each part is Congruent mod 12 to either 2, 3, 6, 9, or 10.

4. The number of partitions of in which no part appears exactly once is the same as the number of partitions of in which no part is Congruent to 1 or 5 mod 6.

5. The number of partitions in which the parts are all Even and different is equal to the absolute difference of the number of partitions with Odd and Even parts.

, also written , is the number of ways of writing as a sum of terms, and can be computed from the Recurrence Relation

 (29)

(Ruskey). The number of partitions of with largest part is the same as .

The function can be given explicitly for the first few values of ,

 (30) (31)

where is the Floor Function and is the Nint function (Honsberger 1985, pp. 40-45).

See also Alcuin's Sequence, Elder's Theorem, Euler's Pentagonal Number Theorem, Ferrers Diagram, Partition Function Q, Pentagonal Number, r(n), Rogers-Ramanujan Identities, Stanley's Theorem

References

Abramowitz, M. and Stegun, C. A. (Eds.). Unrestricted Partitions.'' §24.2.1 in Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables, 9th printing. New York: Dover, p. 825, 1972.

Adler, H. Partition Identities--From Euler to the Present.'' Amer. Math. Monthly 76, 733-746, 1969.

Adler, H. The Use of Generating Functions to Discover and Prove Partition Identities.'' Two-Year College Math. J. 10, 318-329, 1979.

Andrews, G. Encyclopedia of Mathematics and Its Applications, Vol. 2: The Theory of Partitions. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

Berndt, B. C. Ramanujan's Notebooks, Part IV. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1994.

Conway, J. H. and Guy, R. K. The Book of Numbers. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 94-96, 1996.

Honsberger, R. Mathematical Gems III. Washington, DC: Math. Assoc. Amer., pp. 40-45 and 64-68, 1985.

Honsberger, R. More Mathematical Morsels. Washington, DC: Math. Assoc. Amer., pp. 237-239, 1991.

Jackson, D. and Goulden, I. Combinatorial Enumeration. New York: Academic Press, 1983.

MacMahon, P. A. Combinatory Analysis. New York: Chelsea, 1960.

Rademacher, H. On the Partition Function .'' Proc. London Math. Soc. 43, 241-254, 1937.

Ruskey, F. Information of Numerical Partitions.'' http://sue.csc.uvic.ca/~cos/inf/nump/NumPartition.html.

Sloane, N. J. A. Sequences A000009/M0281, A000041/M0663, A000700/M0217, A001318/M1336, A046063, and A046064 in An On-Line Version of the Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences.'' http://www.research.att.com/~njas/sequences/eisonline.html.